Setting parameters with Actions

How can I set a parameter with an action from a visual?

Typically you would use an action of type Navigation Action. It quite straighforward: choose Custom Action> Change the type to Navigation Action > set the parameters to the value you want to assign.
(see Creating and editing custom actions in Amazon QuickSight - Amazon QuickSight )

Note that the visual needs to have a field with the target value of the parameter. If you need to do some changes, then create a new calculated field and use that in the visuals. This is a limitation at the moment but table visuals allow hiding such fields in case you do not want them to show for the end user.